Historical Dates of Schönhengstgau

Some Historical Dates in Bohemia, Moravia and German-speaking Sudetenland              (S. Bier 4.4.2017)

 

≈ 1100 – 1806 Holy Roman Empire German Nation  (Loose confederation of states from the 10th century – August 6, 1806 Foundation of the Rhine Confederation)  
921-929 or 935 Wenzel I (Vaclav), Přemyslide, Christian(?) Bohemian Duke recognizes the supremacy of the the East Franconian King Henry I  
935 – 972 Boleslaw I, Přemyslide, Duke of Bohemia, centralized state in Bohemia and Moravia  
1029 Duke Břetislav von Bohemia (*≈ 1005 – 10.01.1055)  Conquered Moravia from the Poles.  
1034 – 1055 Břetislav I, (*≈ 1005-1055) Duke of Bohemia and Regent of Moravia.  
1061 – 1092 Vratislav II (*1035 – 14.01.1093) Herzog and from 1085 Vratislav I, King of Bohemia.  
1167 The Abbot of the Cloisters  in Chappa (Knappendorf east of  Wildenschwert / Knapovec ) received a decree to direct the settlement of the crown into units in an orderly fashion. In order to cultivate and populate the approximately 30 km wide border-forest between Bohemia and Moravia, the monks, peasants and craftsmen were summoned to the land by secular and ecclesiastical rulers. These pioneers founded villages and German cities under German law. (Magdeburg, Nuremberg). Thus, the German-speaking Sudetenland was not a  conquest of war, but rather a land grant.   The village of Ketzeldorf is mentioned in Bishop’s documents 1347; 1349; 1350; 1361; 1398 as Cunzdorf and  in 1412 for the first time as Kecendorf.  
1174 Decree of Bohemian Duke Sobieslav II. (1173-1178), The Germans are under his protection and can be according to German laws in Bohemia  be known as „Free German people.“ Communities are founded under Magdeburg and Nuremberg law.  
1198 Ottokar I. (≈1155 -15.12.1230) King of Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire.. 1182 Moravia becomes a Margravate.  
1216 – 1253 Wenzel I (*1205 – 23.09.1253), elected King of Bohemia in 1216 (Hereditary title)  
1229  The Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margravate of Moravia  are politically united.  
1241 First Mongol invasion under Batu Kahn.  
1245 – 1281 Bruno von Schaumburg (*≈1205-17.02.1271); Bishop of Olmütz. He was only allowed to enter the city for the first time in 1247. Wenzel I, Ottokar II  and the Bishop pursued expansion policies that promoted the settlement of Germans.  
1273 Rudolf I (*01.03.1218-15.7.1291) of Habsburger ancestry,  was suprisingly elected by the electors as King of the Roman Empire thus founding the Habsburg Dynasty, inclduing Bohemia and Moravia, in the Holy Roman Empire  
1253 – 1278 Ottokar II (*≈1233 – 26.08.1278) King of Boehmia, 1251 Margrave of Moravia is captured while fleeing after losing the battle against  Rudolf I on the battlefield near Dürnkrut and is murdered on August 26, 1278. The mighty Bohemian King also desiired to be the German King and Emperor.  
1278/83-1305 Wenzel II, King of Bohemia (*17.09.1271-21.06.1305; A signficant writer of German songs.)  
1355 Karl IV. (*14.5.1316 Prague- 29.11.1378), 1346 Roman-German King; 1347 King of Bohemia; 1355 Roman-German Emperor, Prague becomes the capitol city of the Roman-German Empire; 1348 Founding of the Karls-University in Prague.  
1409 Prof. Jan Hus sends the German scholars in the Prague University away (mostly to Leipzig and Erfurt).  
06.07.1415 Johannes Hus (1369 – 1415), the Bohemian reformer, is burned at the stake in Constance.  
1419 – 1436 Hussite wars (A religious war and the beginning of hostility towards the Germans and the foundation of the first Czech national state.)  
1526 – 1918 The areas of the Wenzelskrone  (Bohemia/Moravia) lie in the dominion of the Habsburgs  1529 – 1st Turkish invasion.  
1575 – 1611 Rudolf II. Emperior of the Holy Roman Empire German Nation and Bohemian King, Prague is again residence city (capitol).  
23.05.1618 Second Prague defenistration. (Second imperial Court Counselor (Governor) and a scribe were appointed by Bohemia.) Protestants were thrown out of a window in the Prague Castle.   After 1612 German Emperor Matthias (* 24.02.1557-20.03.1619) resided in Vienna.  
1618 – 1648 30- year War (Several armies of the Emperor, Protestants, Swedes, etc., came through Schönhengstgau.)  
1619 – 1637 Ferdinand II. German Emperor (*9.7.1578-15.2.1637) Also from 1617 Bohemian King and 1619 German Emperor.  
1619 – 1620 Friedrich V., 16.8.1596-29.11.1632 Elector of the Palatinate and Bohemian King (Is the leader of the Bohemian Protestants; there are two Bohemian kings.)  
08.11.1620 Battle of Weißenberg (White Mountain) near Prague. Bohemian Protestants. Troops under Friedrich V. were crushed.  
25.02.1634 General of the Imperial Army, Albrecht of Wallenstein, is assassinated at the behest of the emperor in Eger.  
1683 The Turks besiege Vienna for the second time and are forced to withdraw at the Battle of Kahlenberg.  
1713 Emperor Karl VI. Institutes the „Pragmatic Sanction“ allowing for female sucession if there are no male descendants.  
1745 – 1765 Franz I. German Emperor (*08.12.1708 -18.08.1765) His wife is Maria Theresa, who is called Empress.  
1740/45 – 1780 Maria Theresia (*13.05.1717-29.11.1780), Queen of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia and German Empress.  
1804 – 1918 Austrian Empire, Franz II, last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (until 1806) and in 1804 became Emperor Franz I. of Austria.  (The Danube Monarchy of the Habsburgs is a multi-ethnic state 11.08.1804 – 11.11.1918).  The Kingdom of Bohemia and Moravia were included.  
02.12.1805 Three emperor battle of Austerlitz (Czechs, Slavs, East Brno/Moravia; Napoleon(France.), Czar Alexander (Russia). Franz I (are?) not present.  
1866 Prussian-Austrian War.  The Austrians lost the decsive battle at the 03.07.1866 near Hradec (near the village of Sadova). As the Prussians advanced to Hollabrunn (45 km before Vienna), the two armies traversed Schönhengstgau seveal times.  
1871 – 1918 German Empire, Wilhelm I  is also the Prussian King (18.01.1871 – 09.11.1918,) Previously, only many small German states existed.  
1848 – 1916 Franz Josef I. Emperor of Austria (*18.08.1830-21.11.1916), Elizabeth  (Sisi) was his consort from 24.04.1854.  
1914 – 1918 First World War (28.07.1914 – 11.11.1918 truce)  
28.10.1918 Proclamation of the First Czechosolvakian Republic in Prague. (First President: Tomaš Garrigue Masaryk)  
1918 / 1919 Occupation of the German-speaking Sudetenland by the Czech military.  
10.09.1919 Peace Treaty of St. Germain (Without the participation of representatives of Austria-Hungary.) The following ethnic groups lived in the new Czech state in 1919: 48.5% Czech; 27.5% German: 14.9% Slovaks; 6% Hungarian und 2% other.  
1935 Edvard Benesch becomes sucessor president after President Masaryk resigns (1935 – 05.10.1938)  
29.09.1938

(30.09.1938)

Munich Convention (Annexation of German-occupied border areas of Czechoslovakia into the German Reich (Realm or Empire).  (After the invasion by German troops the roads are changed from driving on the left to driving on the right.)  
15.03.1939 German troops invade the rest of Czechoslovakia.  
1939 – 1945 Second World War (01.09.1939 – 08.05.1945 Capitulation)  End of the German Reich.  
1945 – 1947 Explusion of about 3.5 Million Sudeten and Carpathian Germans from Czechoslovakia.  
1945 Establishment of the government of Sdeněk Fierlinger (Prime Minister) in Prague on behalf of Edvard Benesch.  
19.06.1946 Edvard Benesch is confirmed as president of the second Czechoslovak Republic.  

 

 

Brief chronology of the settlement and life in Schönhengstgau/Sudetenland (22.03.2017)

Before Christ The Buoys, a tribe of the Celts, occupy parts of Bohemia. The name Bohemia is derived from Buoyr.
Ca. 3rd-9th Century The Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni settles in Bohemia and the Germanic tribe of the quads in Moravia.
From the 5th Century Slavic tribes (Přemyslid, Slavnikinger, etc.) continue westwards, including into  Bohemia and Moravia. The name Moravia derives from the Celtic name of the River March (Czech. Morava).
623 – 656 Reich (Empire) of Samo-first state structure of immigrant Slavs
In the 9th Century Přemyslid becomes Bohenia. Local princes. The foundation stone for the Prague castle is laid at the end of the 9th century
921 – 935 Wenzel (the Holy) (*903–935)  is a western oriented Bohemian Duke. Murdered (assasinated)on 28.09.935
935 – 972 Boleslav I. (the cruel), Established hegemony over surrounding areas during his rule.
1061 – 1092 Vratislav II. (*≈1035-14.01.1093) Bohemian duke  and after 1085 Bohemian King Vratislav I
1167 The abbot of the monastery in Chappa’ai (Gossensaß, eastern Wildenschwert) is decreed to organize the Crown’s wilderness in an orderly fashion. In 1182 Moravia becomes a margravate.
Decree of 1174 Duke Sobislaw II. (1173–1178) „I Sobislaw II, Duke of Bohemia, make known to all present and those in the future that I take the Germans into my favor and protection, as they have enjoyed since the times of my grandfather, King Wratislaw II“ He then adds „Know that the Germans are free people.“
1229 Wenzel I. (*1205 – 23.09.1253) King of Bohemia receives the Margravate of Moravia as a fiefdom from the German Empire.
1245 – 1285 Bruno von Schaumburg is the Bishop of Olmütz (*≈1205-17.02.1281). He is a patron of German settlements.
1253 – 1278 King Ottokar II. (*1233–1278) summons more Germans into the country.. Murdered 26.08.1278 after the battle on the Marchfeld.
12th  until the 13th Century Settlement of the approximately 30 km wide border forest (Bohemian-Moravian wilderness) between Bohemia and Moravia. The German settlers came from Franconia as well as from Thuringia and Silesia. The land was located and surveyed on behalf of the landlords (nobility, churches) into settlments.   Each settler received 1 hoof  (Hube = Lahne)[1] of land. These were granted depending on the quality of the soil 96 to 115 Metzen (18.41 – 22.06 ha).[2] The locator received an additional hoof and other facilities for each 10-th hoof.  The lower court was transferred to him, and this led to him becoming a hereditary judge. An elected community head replaced this system in 1851.  The settlers did not need to pay dues to the landlords for 15 – 20 years. The settlements were entirely German and remained almost so until 1945.
Local Establishments First documented mentions of certain places: Abtsdorf 1248; Hermersdorf 1266; Ketzelsdorf 1347; Dittersdorf 1347,

Zwittau 1256, Mährisch Lotschnau 1320, Mährisch Trübau 1267, Greifendorf 1270, Rothmühl 1291; Mohren 1320

1273 Rudolf I. (*01.03.1218-+15.07.1291) The king of the German Empire is elected from the Habsburg dynasty.
1419 – 1436 Hussite wars.. Sectarian wars between Prostetants and Cahtolics.  Begining of hostility towards the Germans.
1526 – 1806/1918 The areas of  the Kingdom of Wenceslas (Bohemia and Moravia) belong to the German Reich or to the Austrian Empire.
1745 – 1765 Franz I. German Emperor (*13.05.1717 – 29.11.1780). His wife, Maria Theresia (*13.05.1717 – 29.11.1780)  is named empress as she also conducts government business. .
1740/45 – 1780 Maria Theresia, Queen of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia, German Empress.
1747 Theresian land register.  Patent from 05.07.1747. Earlier descriptions (from 1722) of the rural and dominioned lands (subject/farmer and Manor Country) are revised and simplified for the sake of fairer taxation.
1784 Emperor Josef II. Arranges in  27.07.1984 to create the Josefenian land registers. The goal was to tax farmers and land owners equally. .
1792 – 1806 Emperor Franz II of the German Reich became German Emperor in 1806 and alread as of 1804 Emperor Franz I. of Austria. 
1817 Emperor Franz I. of Austria: Decree leading to the establishment of the Franciscan land register.
1874 Decree on the establishment of land registers in the Empire of Austria. (The name Austria (Österreich) comes from the German for eastern reich (Ostreich))
1770 Imperial Patent of 10.03.1770 to desgnate buidlings with conscription numbers. These numbers also provide information about the year of the construction permit or the year of construction. Streets so designated did not have sequential numbering. The numbering was required to begin at the church. The number 1 should receive the probate. (In Ketzelsdorf: Freisassenhof/Probate Lamatsch had no. 1 until 1945). This type of numbering can still be seen today (2017) in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
1774 Decree of 06.12.1774 establishing general compulsory education from the age of 6 as of the first of September.
1835 – 1848 Emperor Ferdinand I. (*19.04.1793 – 29.06.1793) steps down in favor of Franz Josef in 1848.
1835 First law in the Austro-Hungarian Emprie/Monarchy. For example, door and window sizes are set by law.
1848 – 1916 Franz Josef (*18.08.1830 – 21.11.1916) Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary; Elisabeth (Sisi) is his wifes as of 24.04.1854.
1848 Hans Kudlich (*25.10.1823 in Lobenstein/Silesia + 10.11.1917 USA), as the youngest member of the Reichstag in Vienna introduces legislation for the emancipation of the peasants from tithing, indenturing and all conditions of subservience. Patial  success was achieved with the emancipation law of Sept. 9, 1848.  He is considered as a liberator of the farmers. Escaped to America. .
1869 Reich law. Compulsory years of education are increased from six to eight years. The educational system is now entirely under the control of the state.
1914 – 1918 First World War (28.07.1914-11.11.1918 Truce), Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on 28.06.1914.
1918 28.11.1918 Proclamation of the first Czechoslovakian in Prague. (First President – Tomaš Garrigue Masaryk)

Population: 46% Czechs, 13% Slovaks, 28% Germans, 8% Magyars (Hungarians), 3% Ukrainians and 2% other.

1918 / 1919 Occupation of the German-speaking Sudetenland by the Czech Republic military 29.11.1918 Massacre (5 dead) in Mähr. Trübau
05.03.1919 Monetary reform; Austrian bank notes are stamped with denominations of Czech crowns.  New coins are available only after 1922.
30.01.1920 (Law) And regulation (9.7.1921) of the Czechoslovakian Republic: Each municipality is required to create a community memorial.
1935 Edvard Benesch succeeds Masaryk, who resigned,  as President (until 05.10.1938)
14.03.1938 The reunification of Austria with the German Reich by law.
29.09.1938  Munich Accord cedes the border areas of Czechoslovakia with ethnic German inhabitants to the German Reich. German troops march into these areas from Oct. 1 to Oct. 10. Driving on the left is changed to driving on the right.
15.03.1939 German troops invade the rest of Czechoslovakia.
1941 The Reich Governor declares that religious education is entirely voluntary as of 24.06.1941.
1939 – 1945  Second World War  (01.09.1939 – 08.05.1945 Surrender), End of the German Reich
1945 The „savage explusion“ of the German population begins in the district of Zwittau/Svitavy (Bohemia) on July 28. The inhabitants of  Ketzelsdorf, Dittersdorf, Hohenfeld, Abtsdorf, Überdörfel, etc., were forcibly assembled in the courtyard of a clothing factory in Abtsdorf.  On July 29 up to 80 people were forced into an open cattle or coal car in a train that set off in an unknown direction. The people were put under guard until they reached the German border and were not provided food or water.  After five days of traveling the train reached the Neisse River (the Czech-German border). Here most people climbed out of the train, not at a train station but rather in an unrecognizable expanse of destruction.
17.07. – 03.08.1945 Potsdam Conference Agreement. The expulsion of Germans from many European countries is sanctioned.
19.06.1946 Edvard Benesch is confirmed as president of the second Czechoslovak Republic.

 

Authored by Stephan Bier, Berlin, Germany. Translated from the German by John McSweeny with the assistance of Sybelle Weck-Schwarz, Toledo, Ohio, USA, 2017.

[1] A „hoof“ (Hufe) is an archaic land measurement that refers to as much land as could be worked with one plough by one family, and sustain the family. Consequently, the size differed according to the richness of the soil etc. Serfs only had lease of the land, which led to the name “Lahn” (from “Lehen,“ or fief).

[2] A „Metz“ is another archaic unit of measurement for land. The equivalent is given in parentheses in “Hektar” (ha.). One Hektar = 10,000 square meters.